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Photovoltaics Photovoltaics, or PV for short, is a solar power technology that uses solar cells or solar photovoltaic arrays to convert light from the sun directly into electricity.
A solar cell A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device that converts light energy into electrical energy. Sometimes the term solar cell is reserved for devices intended specifically to capture energy from sunlight, while the term photovoltaic cell is used when the light source is unspecified.

Biodiesel Biodiesel is the biodegradable diesel produced through the reaction  of a vegetable oil or animal fat with methanol or ethanol in the presence of a catalyst (NaOH) to yield glycerine and biodiesel. It is chemically called methyl or ethyl esters.


Biogas typically refers to a (biofuel) gas produced by the anaerobic digestion or fermentation of organic matter including manure, sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, biodegradable waste or any other biodegradable feedstock, under anaerobic conditions. Biogas is comprised primarily of methane and carbon dioxide.


Briquetting is a densification process of loose organic material, such as rice husk, sawdust, coffee husk etc. The purpose of briquetting is to improve handling and combustion characteristics.

Cetane number

Cetane number measures the willingness of a fuel to ignite when it gets compressed. The higher the cetane number the more efficient the fuel is . Biodiesel has a higher cetane number than petrodiesel because of its oxygen content.

charge controller

A charge controller or charge regulator limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries.[1] It prevents overcharging and may prevent against overvoltage, which can reduce battery performance or lifespan, and may pose a safety risk. It may also prevent completely draining ("deep discharging") a battery, or perform controlled discharges, depending on the battery technology, to protect battery life.[2][3] The terms "charge controller" or "charge regulator" may refer to either a stand-alone device, or to control circuitry integrated within a battery pack, battery-powered device, or battery recharger.[4]

Cloud point

Cloud point is the temperature at which a solution or oil starts to form micelles, thus becoming cloudy.

Cocos nucifera

The Botanical  name for the coconut is cocos nucifera. Cocos meaning “monkey-faced” or “grinning face” referring to the three eyes on husks and nucifera meaning “nut-bearing plant”


Coir is the fibrous husk of the coconut shell formed by  the tissues surrounding the seed of  the coconut tree ( Cocos nucifera).


Combustion or burning is the chemical reaction between a fuel and oxygen which usually takes place in air. The products of combustion are carbon dioxide and water with the release of heat.


Copra is the dried meat of the coconut. It is the commercial form of coconut from which coconut oil is extracted by boiling and pressing.

Copra cake

Copra cake is the by-product of coconut oil processing from copra. It can be used as a animal feed.

Cost of Capital

Cost of capital is the rate of return that a firm would receive if they invested their money someplace else with similar risk

Energy density

Energy density is the amount of energy per unit mass. It is usually expressed in MJ/Kg

Fire point

Fire point is the temperature at which the flame becomes self-sustained so as to continue burning the liquid. The fire point is usually a few degree above the flash point.

Flash point

Flash point is the lowest temperature at which a liquid can form an ignitable mixture in air near the surface of the liquid. The lower the flash point, the easier it is to ignite the material.

Freezing point

Freezing point is the temperature at which liquids turn into solids


Gasification is a process in which organic material is converted to a combustible gas, called producer gas. This producer gas mainly consists of H2, N2, CH4, CO and  CO2. The producer gas can be used as a fuel to run an engine or to generate electricity.

Geothermal power

Geothermal power is energy generated by heat stored beneath the Earth's surface. Geothermal power supplies 0.416% of the world's energy.[1] Geothermal comes from the Greek words geo, meaning earth, and therme, meaning heat. Prince Piero Ginori Conti tested the first geothermal power plant on 4 July 1904, at the Larderello dry steam field in Italy.[2] The largest group of geothermal power plants in the world is located in The Geysers


The Gross Heating Value refers to the total energy released in the form of heat when the fuel is burned completely.


An inverter is an electronic circuit that converts direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC). Inverters are used in a wide range of applications, from small switching power supplies in computers, to large electric utility applications that transport bulk power.
The inverter is so named because it performs the opposite function of a rectifier.
A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current to direct current, a process known as rectification. Rectifiers are used as components of power supplies and as detectors of radio signals. Rectifiers may be made of solid state diodes, vacuum tube diodes, mercury arc valves, and other components.

Iodine value

Iodine value (IV) or Iodine number is the amount of iodine in grams that is taken up by  100 grams of the oil, fat or wax. IV is the indicator of the degree of unsaturation of an oil, fat or wax. The higher the IV, the more unsaturated (the greater the number of double bonds) the oil and the higher is the potential for the oil to polymerise. An IV of less than about 25 is required if the oil is to be used for long term applications in unmodified diesel engines.

Melting point

Melting point is the temperature at which a solid melts to become a liquid.


The Net Heating Value refers to the energy that is actually available from combustion after accounting for energy losses from water evaporation.

Octane number

Octane number is the rating of a gasoline in terms of its property to cause knocking. Octane numbers are based on a scale on which isooctane is 100(minimal knock) and heptane is 0(bad knock). It is also known as octane rating

Photovoltaic array

A photovoltaic array is a linked collection of photovoltaic modules, which are in turn made of multiple interconnected solar cells. The cells convert solar energy into direct current electricity via the photovoltaic effect. The power that one module can produce is seldom enough to meet requirements of a home or a business, so the modules are linked together to form an array. Most PV arrays use an inverter to convert the DC power produced by the modules into alternating current that can plug into the existing infrastructure to power lights, motors, and other loads. The modules in a PV array are usually first connected in series to obtain the desired voltage; the individual strings are then connected in parallel to allow the system to produce more current. Solar arrays are typically measured by the energy they produce, in watts, kilowatts, or even megawatts.

Photovoltaic module

Photovoltaic module is a packaged interconnected assembly of photovoltaic cells, also known as solar cells. An installation of photovoltaic modules or panels is known as a photovoltaic array. Photovoltaic cells typically require protection from the environment. For cost and practicality reasons a number of cells are connected electrically and packaged in a photovoltaic module, while a collection of these modules that are mechanically fastened together, wired, and designed to be a field-installable unit, usually with a glass covering and a frame and backing made of metal, plastic or fiberglass, are known as a photovoltaic panel or simply solar panel.

Pour point

Pour point is the lowest temperature at which a liquid remains pourable i.e. it still behaves as a fluid.


Transesterification is the chemical process in which methyl or ethyl alcohol reacts with triglyceride, contained in vegetable oil or animal fats in the presence of catalyst (NaOH or KOH) to produce biodiesel and glycerine.


Triglyceride (oil) is an ester of glycerol and three fatty acid. Most animal fats, oils are composed primarily triglycerides.

Wind power

Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into more useful forms, such as electricity, using wind turbines. At the end of 2006, worldwide capacity of wind-powered generators was 73.9 gigawatts; although it currently produces just over 1% of world-wide electricity use[1], it accounts for approximately 20% of electricity use in Denmark, 9% in Spain, and 7% in Germany.[2] Globally, wind power generation more than quadrupled between 2000 and 2006.[

wind turbine

A wind turbine is a machine that converts the kinetic energy in wind into mechanical energy. If the mechanical energy is used directly by machinery, such as a pump or grinding stones, the machine is usually called a windmill. If the mechanical energy is then converted to electricity, the machine is called a wind generator, wind turbine, or wind energy converter (WEC).


A windmill is a machine designed to convert the energy of the wind into more useful forms using rotating blades. The term also refers to the structure it is commonly built on. In much of Europe, windmills served to grind grain, later applications include pumping water.


A windpump is a type of windmill used for pumping water from a well or draining land.